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Neil Bartlett

Announcing the bnd Maven Plugin

I am pleased to announce the availability of a new Maven plugin for building OSGi bundles, based on bnd. The plugin is called bnd-maven-plugin and it will be developed as part of the wider bnd and Bndtools projects.

The plugin has been kindly donated by one of Paremus’ customers – a very well known company whose identity we expect to be able to confirm in due course – under the terms of the Apache License version 2.

You might very well wonder: why did we build a new Maven plugin for OSGi development? Most OSGi developers who use Maven today are using the maven-bundle-plugin from Apache Felix. That plugin is mature and stable but it does have a number of issues that our customer wanted resolved.

The first major issue with maven-bundle-plugin is that it replaces Maven’s default plugin for JAR generation (the maven-jar-plugin). This means that it must use a different packaging type – “bundle” instead of “jar” – and must use the extensions=true setting to override Maven’s default lifecycle. As a result, the output artifacts are harder to consume in ordinary non-OSGi projects. Therefore, many Maven developers either don’t bother to release OSGi bundles at all because of the hassle, or they release both a “plain JAR” and a separate OSGi bundle. This is deeply frustrating because OSGi bundles already are plain JARs!… they can be used unalterered in non-OSGi applications.

The new bnd-maven-plugin instead hooks into Maven’s process-classes phase. It prepares all of the generated resources, such as MANIFEST.MF, Declarative Services descriptors, Metatype XML files and so on, under the target/classes directory, where they will be automatically included by the standard maven-jar-plugin (with one caveat discussed below).

The second issue is that maven-bundle-plugin has some questionable features and design choices. For example it automatically exports all packages that do not contain the substrings “impl” or “internal”. The motivation was understandable at the time – it is closer to normal Java with all packages being implicitly exported – but this is really just wrong from a modularity point of view, and goes against OSGi best practices. The bnd-maven-plugin instead includes all packages from the project in the bundle but exports nothing by default. The developer must choose explicitly which packages are exported.

The third issue with maven-bundle-plugin is that it is difficult to use in an incremental build environment. In Bndtools we have had literally years of discussions about how to best accommodate Maven users while still supporting the rapid development cycle that Bndtools users love. The new plugin will make this easier: for example after the process-classes phase has completed, the content of the target/classes directory is already a valid OSGi bundle, albeit in folder form rather than a JAR file. Also the new plugin takes its bnd instructions from the bnd.bnd file in each project, rather than from a funky XML encoding of those instructions deep inside the POM.

Finally, we believe that by delivering a Maven plugin directly from the bnd project, we can more quickly take advantage of new features in bnd, and develop features in bnd that directly benefit Maven users. Note however that the Gradle and Ant integrations of bnd will still be supported: we want everybody to use bnd to build their OSGi bundles, irrespective of IDE and build system.

So much for motivation, let’s look at some of the technical details.

The plugin has been released as version 2.4.1 because there was a previous experimental plugin with the same name. That experiment was not a success, and we abandoned it some time ago – the new plugin is a complete rewrite. The version of the plugin will track the version of bnd itself, so 2.4.1 of the plugin builds against 2.4.1 bnd, which is released and available from Maven Central. From now on we will work on version 3.0, which will track version 3.0 of bnd.

The plugin generates the JAR manifest into target/classes/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF, but by default the maven-jar-plugin ignores this file and replaces it with an empty, non-OSGi manifest. In order to pick up the generated manifest it is necessary to set the following configuration, which can be done just once in your parent POM:


The plugin is available now from Maven Central or jCenter. It is not yet thoroughly documented, although bnd itself does have very good documentation. All options from bnd automatically work in bnd-maven-plugin, with the exception of “sub bundles” (-sub) since Maven projects are meant to produce exactly one output artifact per project.

To add the plugin to your project, insert the following into your POM:



We have example projects to get started. Questions, problems or offers of help can be can be directed to the bnd/Bndtools mailing list.